Spanish Grammar Guide

Verbs ser (to be), estar (to be), and tener (to have) in the past tense (pretérito perfecto)

Ser, past tense

Yo fui
Tú fuiste
Él/Ella/Usted fue
Nosotros/as fuimos
Vosotros/as fuisteis
Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes fueron

Estar, past tense

Yo estuve
Tú estuviste
Él/Ella/Usted estuvo
Nosotros/as estuvimos
Vosotros/as estuvisteis
Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes estuvieron

Tener, past tense

Yo tuve
Tú tuviste
Él/Ella/Usted tuvo
Nosotros/as tuvimos
Vosotros/as tuvisteis
Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes tuvieron

Note how ser is, in this tense, identical to ir. Spanish developed from Vulgar Latin, which was brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Roman soldiers during the Second Punic War (3rd Century BC). In Classical Latin, the equivalent verbs for ser and ir (esse and ire, respectively) did have different past tenses, but Spanish, as it developed from a not-so-well-spoken version of the ancient language, “took” the Latin past tense for esse (ser) and applied it to both verbs ser and ir, ignoring the “original” Latin past tense for ire.

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